Figure 3: Scientific Reports

Tensile properties, strain hardening rate, and martensitic transformation rate of the annealed steels. (a) Room temperature engineering tensile stress-strain curves. (b) True stress-strain and strain hardening rate (dσ/dε) curves. In the A850 steel, the stress flow becomes steady after the rapidly increased strain hardening, while the elongation reaches 95%. The plastic instability starts to occur at the true strain of 0.25, and continues during the steady flow. In the A900 steel, the tensile strength increases to 874?MPa as the strain hardening rate increases, while the yield strength and elongation decrease. The plastic instability does not occur until the failure because the strain hardening rate is considerably higher than the true stress. (c) Volume fraction of austenite as a function of true strain. The volume fraction of austenite decreases with increasing true strain because of TRIP. The transformation behavior is classified into several stages, e.g., slowly decreasing stage (Stage A), rapidly decreasing stage (Stage B), and steady stage (Stage C).

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